SANDRP

North-East India (Non-Brahmputra) Rivers Profile

The River system in North East, other than the Brahmaputra, can be classified as the Barak River system and minor Rivers flowing to Bangladesh and Burma. The Barak River, Gumti River, Myntdu River etc are some of the major Rivers flowing to Bangladesh, while the Kaladan River, the Manipur River, Tizu River etc flowing  in the States of Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland are main Rivers flowing to Burma.

The Barak River basin covers parts of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. In India it spreads over states of Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Assam, Tripura and Nagaland having an area of 41,723 Sq.km.

The Barak River originates from the Manipur hills, from Liyai Village in Senapati district in Manipur at an elevation of 2,331 m and flows through Assam and further down to Bangladesh, where it is known by the  name of the Surma and the Kushiyara and later called the Meghna before receiving the combined flow of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. The principal tributaries of Barak joining from north bank are the Jiri, the Chiri, the Modhura, the Jatinga, the Harang, the Kalain and the Gumra whereas the Dhaleswari, the Singla, the Longai, the Sonai and the Katakhal joins from south bank. The Barak sub-basin lies in the States  of Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Assam, Tripura and Nagaland.

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West Bengal Rivers Profile

About West Bengal 

Area: 88752km2; 20 districts; Population- > 91 million Topography: Mountains, Plateaus and Plains.

About West Bengal Rivers

The state of West Bengal, a land of many rivers, covers an area of about 88,752 km2 and is the home of more than 90 million populations as per census of 2011. The Ganga divides the state into two unequal hubs: the North and South Bengal. The state has been divided into 20 districts, the seven districts are within North Bengal and remaining 13 districts are in South Bengal. West Bengal is the only state of India that extends from the Himalaya in the north to Bay of Bengal in south. It offers wide topographic diversity and intricate drainage network of 29 basins. The south Bengal can further be subdivided into two geographical units taking Bhagirathi-Hugli river (the western distributary of the Ganga) as the demarcating line. The western part is called Rarh Bengal and the eastern part is described deltaic Bengal. The rivers of West Bengal have been divided into five groups: i) the rivers of North Bengal; ii) the Ganga-Padma system; iii) the Bhagirathi- Jalangi-Churni system; iv) the western tributaries to Bhagirathi and v) the tidal creeks of Sundarban.

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DRP News Bulletin 27 March 2017 (DON’T WE NEED TO LEARN TO TRULY CELEBRATE OUR RIVERS?)

This is about the proposed Brahmaputra Festival being planned by the Assam Govt from March 31 to April 4, 2017. The five-day festival will witness significant participation from China. Various other countries such as Vietnam and Singapore are also reported as attending the program. It is scheduled to be inaugurated by President Pranab Mukherjee.  

It is true that the word business appears four times on the opening page of this festival website, but the word flood, erosion and people do not appear even once. This is relevant since for very large sections of people of Assam, the river also means floods, erosion, displacement and disaster on regular basis and not just “lifeline of Assam” or “life-giving prosperity and countless blessings”.  

The festival website also errs in many ways, including when it claims “India’s only male river”, since there are several male rivers, including Damodar, Ajoy, Pagla, Gadadhar, among others. It is true that even the word Nemami is copied from the Nemami Gange, but that should not be such a big issue?

It is true that people also suffer when river dries up or is polluted or is encroached or unsustainably mined, and none of these issues are highlighted by the festival website. It is true that the the Assam also means all the communities, including the bodos and mishing and many others, not just Guwahati or Dibrugarh or Majuli. The festival organisers may argue that we are taking the festival to all 21 districts, but it is important to recognised all communities of Assam.

This is in addition to the fact that Brahmaputra includes all the states of North East India, and more. The Brahmaputra, 2,900 km long, is an international river with 918 km of it flowing in India, 1625 km in China and 337 km in Bangladesh.

It is true that the festival is more about attracting tourists, business and transport along the river. And so it is not even giving a comprehensive picture of the rivers of Brahmaputra basin in Assam, nor is there attempt to do anything to improve the state of the rivers. Similarly, the destruction of the rivers of Guwahati and Assam needs to be halted and reversed, and may be this occasion can be used to push that advocacy?

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Rajasthan Rivers Profile

About Rajasthan

Location: North West India; Area:- 342,239 sq km; Geography:-Desert plains and mountainous (Aravalli range); Population:- 68.54 million People; Rivers:- 6 Major River basins; Districts:-33 Districts; Climate:- Drier Western and Tropical Eastern part

About Rajasthan Rivers 

Rivers in Rajasthan are mostly seasonal, but this fact explains little because a river is not just the surface flow, evident to a naked eye. All the rivers and their floodplains in this desert state are vast grazing grounds supporting millions of livestock. These unseen rivers also recharge the groundwater making well irrigation possible.  

Modern-day development activities, however, are putting an enormous pressure on them. If deforestation has reduced the water flow, rampant sand mining has affected the water retention and seepage into subsurface channels. Aravallis also has large number of marble mines and processing units. While digging operations extensively damage the environment, discharge of a large amount of slurry by processing units also blocks water channels. Industrial and domestic wastewater has further affected the quality and biodiversity of rivers. 

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Rivers of Stories

Above: Sohni in Chenab, painitng by Manjit Bawa

To say that rivers hold great cultural significance for South Asia is stating the obvious. Also obvious is that the cultural legacy of rivers overpowers the religious narrative… which too, is not tied only to Vedic Hinduism. All faiths in the subcontinent have a deep connection with rivers which manifests in stories, lore, songs and poetry. While Suktas in Rigveda eulogizing rivers are known, actually breathtaking is the lyrical beauty of the verses which describe Sindhu or Indus as a “wild, magnificent white stallion, roaring and galloping through the Himalayas into the plains” or sometimes as a “loving mother cow, its calves following her from the steep mountain paths”. Read More

Narela: How A Growing Delhi Is Destroying Its Ponds

Ponds are an essential asset for our survival. They store rainwater and work as groundwater recharge points. They can also treat sewage to some extent. Not long back, ponds water was used for potable purposes.  Since ancient time, they have been central to numerous cultural and economic activities. In fact, village communities had certain set of rules for the preservation of village ponds. But things seem to have changed drastically specially in urban areas in recent decades. Through this field report comprising of latest images, we try to present current status of ponds in and around Narela in Delhi city.

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Watershed Protection in Austin: Governance structures we can learn from

“I swam in the Barton Springs 20 years back. Austin saw explosive growth in these years and is one of the fastest growing cities in the US currently. I can still swim in the Barton Springs. I think this is the single biggest contribution of the Watershed Protection Department.”-Denise Delaney, Environment Program Coordinator, Watershed Protection Department, Austin, Texas.

When I came into Austin, the state Capital of Texas, Indian rivers were firmly on the mind. Pune River Restoration Plan was kicking up. The legal battle against a road inside the Pune riverbed was getting a favourable order from NGT. People of Delhi were fighting their long-drawn battle for protecting the floodplains of Yamuna. A huge People’s rally was held in Mumbai to protect the Dahisar River, which to some would appear beyond redemption. Bangalore Lakes were on fire again. People are looking for solutions, but transparent responsive governance around rivers seems like the biggest missing piece in the puzzle. Read More

India Pakistan resume talks on Indus Treaty: Stakes are high

When on March 20-21, 2017, on the eve of World Water Day, India and Pakistan’s Permanent Indus Commission met in Islamabad for its 113rd meeting, there was a lot at stake besides the immediate issue or even the Indus Treaty.

In many ways, the Indus Treaty remains a bright spot in relations between these two neighbors and the treaty keeps bringing them back to the talking table…This is the magic of a shared river! Read More

DRP News Bulletin 20 March 2017 (South India Reeling Under Severe Drought)

The drought has extended its grip in the South, with the South-West (S-W) monsoon falling significantly short and the North-East monsoon proving a total failure. Reeling under the impact of failed monsoons, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Puducherry have declared themselves as drought affected. Kerala and Karnataka, which are the worst affected, are already contemplating actions such as cloud seeding to tide over the situation.

In Kerala, the S-W monsoon deficit stood at -34 per cent, and the North-East monsoon, -61 per cent. Similarly, in Tamil Nadu, the deficits were -19 per cent and -62 per cent (North-East monsoon). For Coastal Karnataka, the shortfall stood at -21 per cent and -63 per cent, respectively. Drought-like conditions are also prevailing in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

Water levels in key reservoirs in the region are at their lowest. The water tables have declined further even as the civic administration in many cities, small towns and panchayats has been increasingly tapping groundwater to ensure supplies. The situation is so dire that the Kerala govt has directed PepsiCo to cut down drastically on the use of groundwater for its Palakkad plant. Traders in Tamil Nadu are also boycotting these fizzy after claims that foreign firms are exploiting the country’s water resources.

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DRP News Bulletin 13 March 2017 (20 Big Hydro Projects Costing Over 30K Crore, Stalled & Stressed: Piyush Goyal)

20 hydro projects stalled or stressed  The Power Minister Piyush Goyal on March 09, 2017 in a written statement has informed the parliament that as many as 20 under construction HPPs totalling 6,329 MW are either stalled or stressed in the country and Rs 30,147.08 crore has already been spent on them. These projects include 2,000 MW Subansiri Lower of NHPC Ltd, 500 Mw Teesta VI of Lanco Teesta Hydro Power Ltd, 120 MW Rangit-IV of Jal Power Corp, 300 Mw Panan of Himagiri Hydro Energy Pvt Ltd, 850 MW Ratle of GVK Ratle HEP Pvt Ltd, 100 Mw Sorang of Himachal Sorang Power Ltd and 960 MW Polavaram of Polavaram Project Authority.

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