(This Note is followed by a letter to Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis in Marathi, which is endorsed by several organisations)
In the past two years, Jal Yukta Shivar Abhiyan has been implemented in many districts of the State. A Government Resolution was issued on the 5th December 2014 to implement Jal Yukta Shivar Abhiyan (JYS from hereon) to make “Maharashtra Drought Free by 2019”. The GR lists out a 13-point program to be implemented, which lays stress on watershed works, deepening and widening of canals, cement nalla bunds, reinstating old water structures, tree plantation, well recharge, etc. The Chief Minister has supported the small scale water harvesting through JYS strongly, as one of the main solutions to water security for farm and villages.
Many of us have seen, visited and have written about the positive impacts of Jal Yukta Shivar works in places like Solapur, where the main driving force was people’s participation and diversification of works.
Currently, Deepening, Widening and even Straightening of Rivers is being undertaken supposedly under the JalYukta Shivar Program under Chief Minister’s Relief Fund. This is also being mistakenly labelled as River Rejuvenation (नदी पुनरुजीवन), although there is no mention the term “River” in the original JYS GR dated 5th December 2014. The GR limits itself only to nallahs and canals.
Despite this, River Deepening, Widening and Straightening works are being undertaken under JYS as well as in isolation in many parts of the state, mostly using heavy machines like JCBs and Poclains.
The rate at which such works are being undertaken by the government and local groups seems to indicate that this is now an established and mainstream method for river rejuvenation. Following points will highlight the situation:
- It is reported that State Government, through its Cooperative Department is planning to bring out/ has brought out a Government Resolution about Sugar Factories contributing Rs 10 lakhs each specifically for River Widening, Deepening and Straightening Works.
- Former Union Agriculture Minister and President of the Nationalist Congress Party Mr. Sharad Pawar made an announcement at the Vasantdada Sugar Institute that all Private and Cooperative Sugar factories will contribute Rs. 10 Lakh and /or one Poclain machine to the Chief Minister’s Fund for undertaking River Widening, Deepening and Straightening works.
- State Cooperative Minister Mr. Chandrakant Patil was present at this occasion and he supported Mr. Pawar’s suggestion, declaring that a GR to such effect will be issued soon.[i]
Such support for River Widening, Deepening and Straightening works as a drought mitigation measure, itself is problematic. It is also ignores the need to reduce and eliminate unsustainable crops like sugarcane in low rainfall, drought prone areas like Marathwada and seems an attempt to let sugar factories paint themselves in charitable light.
- State Water Supply Minister Mr. Vijay Shivtare announced River Rejuvenation[ii] Plan of Rivers like Manganga (Budget of Rs 5 Crore 53 Lakh), Ranmala River (Rs 20 Lakh budget), Yerla River (Rs 2 Crores 55 Lakhs), Vasna River (Rs 6 Crore 12 Lakh), Banganga River (Rs 5 Crore 47 Lakh) in Satara to be undertaken under Jal Yukta Shivar Program.[iii] (Note again that JYS GR does not mention River, but only nallahs and canals)
- In Latur, main Manjara River is being deepened and straightened for a stretch which is 18 kms long, 3 meters deep and 80 meters wide. It is unclear if government is a part of this initiative. Film Stars and Politicians are contributing to the work, which is spearheaded by influential citizens of Latur, Sugar Factory Owners and Spiritual Private Organizations.[iv]
- Over enthusiastic Ministers are making statements that deepening as much as 300 feet should be undertaken to “rejuvenate” rivers![v]
- Questions about unplanned and haphazard nature of work are being raised openly now by experts as well as the media.[vi] Recent publication of May June 2016 Edition of भवताल Magazine highlights this. ( “जलयुक्त शिवार की नद्यांशी खेळ”)
- Haphazard works interfering with the river’s integrity are being undertaken all over the state, the only qualification seems to be having a JCB, a Poclain machine and diesel.[vii] In all this, there is no attempt to assess and understand the impacts of these works on the river, its functions, on environment and on the people in the upstream and downstream.
While it is commendable that the government is talking about and attempting River Rejuvenation possibly for the first time in the history of Maharashtra and citizens are enthusiastically trying to join river rejuvenation work, the way it is being done now is raising serious questions.
It is imperative that these questions are addressed urgently, looking at the sad state of our rivers. Rivers are a crucial public resource, critical for the sustainability of the water resources and the vast population that depends on them, especially vulnerable groups like women, Dalits and landless who bear disproportionately high brunt of the drought.
Looking at the far reaching impacts, and as a trustee of this public resource, it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that works undertaken on a river, whether by the government or private agencies, follow existing laws and are based on detailed and well-studied plans. It is imperative that the impacts and benefits of River deepening, widening and straightening are well studied and clearly known.
However, there seems to be no system in place right now to ensure any of this.
We cannot afford to accept massive widening, deepening and straightening works as “River Rejuvenation” uncritically when some of these works are clearly detrimental to the existence, survival and sustainability of the rivers.
Above: Floods deposited excavated muck back in a widened river bed. Muck mounds did not let water flow from fields to the river. Photo from: http://barmahi.blogspot.in/2015/09/blog-post_22.html
- Correspondence and Official Committees on River Widening and Deepening
A group of Water experts, Geologists and Activists had written a letter to the Government dated Dec 2014, highlighting concerns about digging rivers, but the letter has not been acknowledged so far. Hence, we are reiterating some of the points made below.
River Widening, Deepening and Straightening was an integral part of the Shirpur Pattern of water management which was successful in Shirpur and surrounding regions of Dhule. In 2011, a government committee constituting of Senior Geologist Late Mr. Mukundrao Ghare, Mr. Saurabh Gupta (CGWB) and Mr. Suresh Khandale (Former Director, GSDA) submitted a report which stated unambiguously that Widening and Deepening works were effective in Shirpur because of the underlying Bazada Geological formations.
The Committee mentioned that channel formation of a river, its width and depth is a result of a number of characteristics including geohydrology and uncontrolled deepening and widening will have deleterious impact on the environment. Government’s position on this Report remains unclear till date.
In January 2013, government appointed one more committee to study Shirpur Pattern under the Chairpersonship of Director, GSDA, based on which a GR was issued in April 2013 which stated that deepening works should not be carried out in hard strata, below the layer of Murum.
Above: Straightening of River and muck disposed on immediate river banks. No riparian area seen Photo: https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=imgres&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwikl6bFrL3MAhWTxY4KHc-sDTcQjB0IBg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdivyamarathi.bhas
GSDA Report stated that:
- Main aim of Nalla deepening (NOT River Deepening) works is not surface storage, but groundwater recharge
- Deepening and Widening works should be undertaken only on second order and third order streams (Not the main river channel as is happening now.)
- The length of the deepening and widening should be decided based on surface run off calculations and not in an unplanned way
- Wherever the natural depth of the nalla is more than 3 meters, permission and guidance of GSDA has to be sought before undertaking these works
- Maximum depth of deepening works should not exceed 3 meters.
- Deepening is not recommended in alluvial regions
Above: Unplanned River deepening and widening Photo:http://maharashtratimes.indiatimes.com/maharashtra/aurangabad-marathwada-news/aurangabad/aurangabad-deepening-of-river/articleshow/51870114.cms
- Impact of Unplanned Widening Deepening on Groundwater
According to Senior Hydrogeologist Himanshu Kulkarni, also a signatory of the Dec 2014 submission, a stream channel in basalt strata represents a groundwater discharge zone. This is the lowest hydraulic head for the aquifer and “locus of various lowest points of the cross section of the watershed”. This is not a natural groundwater recharge zone. Some recharge into aquifers can happen from here only seasonally. Moreover, aquifers are “The last remaining vestige of the ‘natural state’ of many aquifers, clearly indicating that the limits of exploitation will clearly be breached in the absence of any forward linkage to a demand management component of groundwater from these huge ‘wells’ excavated under this much touted model.”
Above: Graphics from ACWADAM demonstrate that hydraulic gradient and hence the groundwater also follows topography of the land and excavating streams results in draining of groundwater into the streams. Source: ACWADAM
Water that is found in the deepened and widened stretches is actually from the aquifer below, which is exposed, open to exploitation and evaporation in case of uncontrolled deepening. Ghare, Gupta and Khandale Committee stated that such opening up of aquifers can lead to pollution of aquifers and clogging of the aquifer mouth due to silt and lasting damage.
Maharashtra has already witnessed massive impacts of uncontrolled groundwater abstraction, plummeting groundwater levels across the state, especially Marathwada have been one of the main reasons behind drinking water crisis. We have not been able to do any thing worthwhile to regulate groundwater till date, although it is the water lifeline of the state. In these circumstances, it is imperative to ensure that Deepening, Widening and Straightening works do not impact groundwater aquifers. It is ironical that the JYS GR itself includes implementing Groundwater Management and Development Act (1009) a one of its objectives, but functions contrary to its objective.
- Is unplanned Widening, Deepening and Straightening of rivers with unassessed impacts ecologically sound?
- Riparian Area of a stream and a river: Riparian area is the stretch of vegetation along the river channel (bushes, undergrowth, grasses, trees). It is an important part of the river itself. Vegetated riparian banks reduce bank erosion, increase bank stability and help in filtering and recharging water. They also act as buffers in case of floods and regulate stream flow in drought[viii]. In addition, they provide an important habitat to biodiversity.
In many streams that are widened, this riparian area is sacrificed first. Loss of riparian area makes river and stream banks prone to erosion and bank collapse in case of flash floods and high flows.
- Bank slope: In many cases of River widening and deepening, banks slopes are being cut to nearly 90 degree angle, creating an L shaped water channel. Such channel morphology does not exist in natural riverine systems. A steep cross section increases velocity of flowing water and does not encourage saturation, recharge or infiltration. Increased water velocity also means greater potential of bank erosion and scouring. In urban storm water drains, slopes are artificially made steep so that water flows quickly and does not accumulate, but sadly, we are using the same principles in case of a river and calling it river rejuvenation!
Above: 90 degree bank slope, deep digging and muck disposed on sides Photo:http://www.mahanews.gov.in/Home/DispDistrictNewsDetails.aspx?str=8WYIC0rJ8r+e2Nt1pp44Tg==
- Straightening of river channel: Strengthening of a river or stream channel is an attempt to destroy the ecological character and identity of a river and is an anathema to River Rejuvenation. Straightening decreases rivers’ meandering state, which is a result of several natural factors forged over centuries of deposition and erosion. Straightening reduces river length and area, reducing the space, flood plains, recharging as well as carrying capacity of the river. Ironically, river straightening too is a part of urban flood management strategy, not rejuvenation! Straightened channels result in higher velocity of water and mean more erosion and bank instability.
River rejuvenation works going on the world over are moving exactly in the opposite direction: Riparian areas are being protected, bank stability is being maintained, Meanders or rivers curves are being reintroduced in straightened rivers!
- River Rejuvenation:
While a Rejuvenated river will provide more stable, dependable and better quality of water, only impounding and abstracting more water in a river bed is not river rejuvenation and should not be labelled as such. However, there are many ways rivers can be revived and rejuvenated, which will also lead to increased water availability. Some of the steps to rejuvenate parched and polluted rivers in Maharashtra include (We are not including governance steps like equitable water distribution etc. here, though they are equally important):
- Catchment Area Treatment to harvest water where it falls, slow down the surface flow and increase recharge in aquifers in aquifer recharge zone. This cannot be achieved by deepening and widening of rivers and streams directly at the valley level, but would need a ridge to valley approach.
- Groundwater recharge and regulation in the catchment to protect aquifers, improve water availability for all and improve base flows in the river. It is the base flows that contribute significant part of surface or sub surface river flows in drought. The uniting factor of River rejuvenation works in Rajasthan or in some parts of Maharashtra has been increased recharge of aquifers and regulation of groundwater use at decentralized level.
- Reforestation and protection of forested catchments. Forested catchments reduce soil erosion and siltation of the river, they regulate stream flows and micro climate. A protected catchment automatically means lesser silt in rivers.
- Vegetated and Protected Riparian Banks These protect the river banks, reduce erosion and maintain water quality.
- Environmental Flows As a report by Union Water Resources Ministry also emphasizes, ensuring environment flows in rivers is key requirement for river rejuvenation and we in Maharashtra urgently need to move in that direction. Living rivers with a part of their natural flow maintained (either perennial or seasonal) are not luxury but necessity for the water, food, livelihood and ecological security of the people. This is even more important in the context of climate change and there are several ways to achieve this.
In this framework, demand management, ridge to valley watershed approach, controlled groundwater and surface water abstraction and respecting integrity of the river play an important role which cannot be bypassed.
- Steps to manage on-going ‘River Rejuvenation’ works in Maharashtra
- If River Rejuvenation or River/Stream widening, deepening and straightening works are to be carried out under JYS, then the current JYS GR needs to be urgently amended to include a watershed approach. Unit of planning cannot be a village, but a micro watershed.
- Strict guidelines on desilting streams and rivers have be included in the GR. The current GR only talks of governance and monitoring mechanisms, but does not speak about technical aspects and precautions which need to be taken while tampering with the river.
- A team of hydrogrologists, ecologists, river experts and local community has to be put together for each micro watershed to study the impact of various elements of JYS on rivers, groundwater and water availability in the form of an Environmental Impact Assessment. The current GR only discusses implementation and monitoring.
- Reasons behind river degradation need to be understood before undertaking direct work in the river channel.
- Detailed plan for river rejuvenation needs to be worked out for river rejuvenation which includes a Ridge to Valley Approach and not only haphazard widening and deepening in some stretches. The planning, decision making and implementation of such works has to happen in participation of the local communities dependent on rivers.
- A small public hearing, encouraging and inviting comments and suggestions from locals and concerned people needs to be organized where water sharing issues between upstream and downstream will also be discussed.
In this regard, we would like to know:
- If the State Water Resource Department has given permission to the River Widening, Deepening and Straightening works in the state. If yes, on what basis. If no, then why has it not taken suo motto action?
- Has the Groundwater Survey and Development Agency scrutinized and monitored these works? If yes, their report. If no, why has suo motto action not being taken?
- State Environment Department is responsible for overseeing environment wellbeing of the state and its rivers. Has it sought any information about these works? Has it taken suo motto action? If not, the reasons
River is an extremely important public resource and the Water Resources Department is the trustee of a River. Modifying the flow of a river is prohibited as per the Maharashtra Irrigation Act (1976) through sections 19, 20 and 21.
The current drought, people’s enthusiastic participation, Government’s efforts at River Rejuvenation etc., are watershed moments for Maharashtra which hold a potential towards achieving far-reaching positive impact for our rivers if there is a systematic and informed & democratic process in place. We whole heartedly welcome people’s participation in reclaiming and working towards their rivers. We also welcome government’s initiative towards River Rejuvenation. However, the basic prerequisite is that the work should be scientific, well-planned and following an accepted, transparent system, and based on prior assessment and in participation with the people who depend on these rivers, with an oversight by the government to ensure the work is sustainable and in public interest. The approach heavy on machinery alone is not resulting in increased employment to local people when women and Dalits, who remain the most affected sections facing disproportionate brunt of the drought.
In this regard we request urgent intervention for your office. We would be willing to meet you in person and present our view as well as ways through which River Rejuvenation and Water Scarcity can be approached without the current extremism.
Letter to Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis
श्री. देवेंद्र फडणवीस
माननीय मुख्यमंत्री तथा अध्यक्ष, राज्य जल परिषद, महाराष्ट्र राज्य
विषय: जलयुक्त शिवार अभियाना अंतर्गत आणि इतरत्र स्वयंस्फुर्तीने केले जात असलेले अनियंत्रीत नदी खोलीकरण, रुंदीकरण आणि सरळीकरण
आपल्याला माहित असेल की राज्यभरात सध्या सरकारी यंत्रणेकडून आणि लोक सहभागातून, स्वंयस्फूर्तीने अनेक नद्यांचे खोलीकरण, रुंदीकरण आणि सरळीकरण हाती घेण्यात येत आहेत. याला नदी पुनर्रुजीवन असेही म्हटले जात आहे. सरकारचा सहभाग आणि लोकांचे आपली नदी वाचविण्याचे, पुनर्रुजीवीत करण्याचे प्रयत्न स्तुत्य आहेत आणि आमचा या भावनेला, या दिशेला पूर्ण पाठिंबा आहे.
पण आज असे दिसून येत आहे की नदी खोलीकरण, रुंदीकरण आणि सरळीकरण करताना कोणतेही पर्यावरणीय किंवा प्रक्रियेचे निकष पाळले जात नाहीत, किंबहुना सरकारने इतक्या महत्वाच्या कामासाठी कोणतेही निकष मांडलेलेच नाहीत. जलयुक्त शिवार बाबतच्या शासन निर्णयात “नदी” खोलीकरण, रुंदीकरणाचा उल्लेख देखील नाही. शासन निर्णयात सगळे काम हे “नाल्यापुरते” मर्यादित ठेवायचे आहे (आणि तिथेही नियोजन व नियंत्रण गरजेचे आहे). पण सध्या मात्र नियमांच्या आणि नियोजनाच्या अभावाने नदीपात्रात मोठ्या मशिनच्या आधारे अनन्वित खणकाम सुरु आहे. असे दिसते की JCB आणि पोकलेन मशीन असणे हे नदीत पुनर्रुजीवीत करण्यासाठीची एकमेव पात्रता आणि गरज आहे.
अनियंत्रित खणकाम, भूजल स्रोत उघडे पडणे, नदीचे काठ तीव्र कोनात कापले जाणे, नदीचे सरळीकरण किंवा “कालवाकरण” होणे, तिच्या बाजूची राई, गवताळ प्रदेश रुंदी करणाच्या कामात नष्ट होणे, काढलेला गाळ आणि माती यांचे ढीग नदीच्या काठावरच रचलेले जाणे ज्याने पाण्याच्या निचर्यास अडथळा होवून, मोठ्या पावसानंतर गाळ परत नदीतच येणे…या सगळ्या बाबींचा नदीच्या परीसंस्थेवर आणि तिच्यावर अवलंबून असलेल्या समाजावर विपरीत आणि घातक परिणाम होवू शकतो, काही ठिकाणी झाला आहे.
हा परिणाम विविध स्तरांवर होतो: मुख्यत्वे करून भूजल आणि नदीच्या परिसंस्थेवर अधिक. नदीचे “सरळीकरण” ही बाब तर नदी पुन्नरुज्जीवनाच्या पूर्ण विरोधात आहे!
नदी खोलीकरण आणि रुंदीकरणाची सुरुवात ज्या शिरपूर पॅटन पासून झाली. त्याच्या राज्यभर अंमलबजावणी बाबत आमच्या पैकी काहींनी डिसेंबर २०१४ मध्ये मा. मुख्यमंत्र्याना विस्तृत पत्र लिहिले होते. सदर पत्रात अनियोजीत आणि अनियंत्रित खोलीकरण रुंदीकरणाचे परिणाम आणि धोके उद्धृत केले होते. दुर्दैवाने त्यास कोणतेही उत्तर मिळाले नाही.
तरीही आमची अशी आशा आहे की या निवेदनास आपण योग्य आणि विस्तृत प्रतिसाद द्याल.
सदर पत्रासोबत आम्ही निवेदन जोडत आहोत ज्यात अनियंत्रित नदी खोलीकरण, रुंदीकरण आणि सरळीकरणाचे अल्पकालीनआणि दीर्घकालीन धोके मांडले आहेत, तसेच घारे, गुप्ता आणि खंडाळे समिती आणि भूजल सर्वक्षण आणि विकास यंत्रणेच्या अध्यक्षतेत गठीत केलेल्या समितीचे निष्कर्ष, तसेच जेष्ठ भूजल-भूगर्भ शास्त्रज्ञ श्री. हिमांशु कुलकर्णी यांची भूजलावर होणाऱ्या परिणामाबद्दल टिपण्णी जोडली आहे.
आमची मागणी आहे की:
१. नदी खोलीकरण आणि रुंदीकरणाबाबत ठोस नियमावली बनविण्याचे काम सरकारने त्वरीत हाती घ्यावे. याशिवाय कोणत्याही नदीचे वा उपनदीचे अनियंत्रित आणि अभ्यासाशिवाय खोलीकरण-रुंदीकरण-सरळीकरण कोणत्याही संस्थेकडून अथवा यंत्रणेकडून करण्यात येऊ नये.
२. जलयुक्त शिवार शासन निर्णयात त्वरित बदल करून कामांचे नियोजन गावपातळीवर न करता पाणलोट क्षेत्र व माथा ते पायथा या तत्वानुसारच करण्यात यावे. त्यात मिशनरीला झुकते माप न देता रोजगार निर्मिती करणाऱ्या योजनांना प्राधान्य देण्यात यावे जेणेकरून केवळ कंत्राटदाराचाच फायदा होणार नाही तर स्त्रिया, दलित व इतर दुर्बल घटक, जे दुष्काळाच्या झळा सगळ्यात जास्त भोगतात, यांना दिलासा मिळेल.
३. सध्या सुरु असलेले नियोजन शून्य नदी खोलीकरण रुंदीकरण व सरळीकरणावर तातडीने निर्बंध घालून मूलतः नदीतील प्रवाह कमी का झाला याचा अभ्यास हाती घ्यावा. यात भूजल शास्त्रज्ञ, नदी अभ्यासक, स्थानिक जनता यांचा सहभाग असावा.
४. कोणत्याही नदीची खोलीकरण, रुंदीकरण करण्या आधी त्या कामाचा विस्तृत आराखडा बनवावा व त्यात GSDA, पर्यावरण विभाग, जल संधारण विभाग आणि जल संपदा विभाग यांचा सहभाग व कारणासहित परवानगी असावी. आपणास माहित असेल की नैसर्गिक निचऱ्यास प्रमाणा बाहेर अडथळा निर्माण करणे हे महाराष्ट्र पाटबंधारे अधिनियम १९७६ कलम १९, २० आणि २१ अन्वये गुन्हा आहे.
या संदर्भात सरकार खालील प्रश्नांची उत्तरे सरकार देईल का?
१. जलयुक्त शिवार योजनेच्या शासन निर्णयात नदीचा उल्लेख नसताना अनेक मुख्य नद्यांवर खोलीकरण, रुंदीकरण आणि सरळीकरण करण्यात येत आहे. त्यासाठी कोणता अभ्यास करण्यात आला? आराखडा कसा तयार झाला? या कामांना कोणी परवानगी दिली? कोणत्या आधारे?
२. नदीपात्राची कायदेशीर मालकी जेव्हा जलसंपदा विभागाकडे आहे तेव्हा या कामांसाठी त्यांची परवानगी घेण्यात आली होती का? त्यांनी ती कोणत्या निकषांवर दिली?
३. सरकारला घारे, खंडाळे आणि गुप्ता समितीचे निष्कर्ष व भूजल सर्वेक्षण विकास यंत्रणेच्या सुचना मान्य आहेत का? नसतील तर का? सरकारने यावर आपली भूमिका कृपया स्पष्ट करावी.
४. जल संपदा विभागाने, GSDA ने आणि राज्य पर्यावरण विभागाने नदी खोलीकरण, रुंदीकरण आणि सरळीकरणा बद्दल आपली भूमिका स्पष्ट केली आहे का? नदीची आणि भूजलाची सुरक्षा ही या विभागांची जबाबदारी आहे. त्यांनी आपली भूमिका स्पष्ट केली नसे तर नसेल तर त्याची कारणे काय?
आमची आपणास विनंती आहे की कृपया या निवेदनाची योग्य दखल घ्यावी व निवेदनात आणि सोबत जोडलेल्या विस्तृत टिप्पणीत प्रस्तुत केलेल्या प्रश्नांची उत्तरे जनतेसमोर ठेवावीत. आम्ही या बद्दल आपल्याशी समक्ष चर्चा करण्यास तयार आहोत.
श्रीमती कल्पनाताई साळुंखे, पाणी पंचायत, पुणे
प्रदीप पुरंदरे, अभ्यासक, निवृत्त प्राध्यापक, वाल्मी , औरंगाबाद
के. जे जॉय, सोपेकॉम, पुणे
सुहास कोल्हेकर, महाराष्ट्र समन्वयक, जन आंदोलनांचा राष्ट्रीय समन्वय
सुनीती सु. र. , जन आंदोलनांचा राष्ट्रीय समन्वय, पुणे
विजय परांजपे, गोमुख संस्था
श्रीपाद धर्माधिकारी, मंथन अध्ययन केंद्र, पुणे
परिणीता दांडेकर, SANDRP, पुणे (पत्र व्यवहारासाठी)
[vi] http://www.loksatta.com/vishesh-news/jalyukt-latur-campaign-1233555/ , http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/playing-with-water-karnataka-s-controversial-river-rejuvenation-plan/story-ZRTPnQaamPVY1cVlhYPC6K.html